JARO Aims and Scope
JARO is a peer-reviewed journal that publishes research findings focused on the auditory and vestibular systems. JARO welcomes submissions describing original experimental research that investigates the mechanisms underlying problems of basic or clinical significance.
Clinical case studies, pharmaceutical screens and methods papers are not encouraged unless they include significant new findings as well. Commentaries and reviews are published at the discretion of the editorial board; consult the editor-in-chief before submitting.
Instructions for Authors
All reviewers and editors are asked to agree to maintain confidentiality. In the event of accusations of ethical violations, the journal reserves the right to share unpublished material as needed to evaluate the accusations.
Authors should submit studies that have not been submitted or published elsewhere. Any re-representation of published data must be fully acknowledged and done with the approval of the copyright holder. Authors are expected to openly declare any commercial interest, or other conflict of interest, when they submit their paper for consideration. This should be done in a letter accompanying the manuscript. All authors must have agreed to the submission of the final submitted manuscript. Individual email addresses must be provided for all authors so that they may all be contacted should any problem arise.
*New: PDFs allowed for initial submissions (details under “Formats”); non-Latin author names will be represented in both Latin and original characters (details under “Preparation of Electronic Manuscripts”)
Preparation of electronic manuscripts Main Text Non-Latin Names Abstract and Keywords Body of the Text Units Acronyms Methods Results Discussion Acknowledgements References In-text Citations Reference List Equations Permissions Footnotes Tables Statistics Figures Graphics After Acceptance Copyright Transfer vs Open Choice Proof Reading Online First Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium (NPRC) Policy and Guidelines on the Sharing of Research Materials and Genetic Database Information Sharing: General Policy Sharing: Guidelines
Manuscripts are submitted and reviewed via the online manuscript submission and review system, Editorial Manager.
For the initial submission, you may submit in the formats listed below OR a PDF, which may or may not include all figures. If you do initially submit a pdf, note that you will have to submit a non-pdf format (below) with individual submission of figures before the manuscript can be accepted.
For final submission, acceptable formats for initial and final submission include: Word, WordPerfect, RTF, TXT, TIFF, GIF, JPEG, EPS, LaTeX2E, TeX, Postscript, PICT, Excel, Tar, Zip and Powerpoint.
Preparation of electronic manuscripts
Format manuscripts for standard letter or A4 paper with double spacing throughout, including abstract, text, acknowledgments, references and figure captions, and wide (› 1” or 2.5 -cm) margins. Continuous line numbers should be included in the left margin. Number all pages, beginning with the abstract page, at the bottom.
Manuscripts that do not meet these standards will be returned to the authors without review.
Arrange as follows:
• Complete names, institutional affiliations and addresses (city, state or province, country, and postal code) and email addresses of all authors;
• A short title for the running head of the article (‹ 50 characters including spaces);
• Complete contact information of the corresponding author, including telephone number, fax number, and e-mail address. If the corresponding author will be unavailable for a significant period, also specify an alternate author and provide the same information.
• Number of words in the abstract, introduction and discussion (should be 300, 750 and 1750 words or less, respectively).
Authors whose names are normally composed of non-Latin characters can now include their names in parentheses after a transliterated version, for example, Jingbing Xue (薛晶冰). These non-Latin characters must be represented in Unicode characters. Unicode will be allowed only for the original form of a transliterated name, and no additional information (such as degrees) should be included in this format.
Abstract and Keywords
On a new page, provide a concise (300 words or less) summary of the major findings of the paper suitable for the general readership of JARO. Do not include references or subheadings. Avoid excessive detail in favor of accessibility to general readers. On the same page, give 4-6 keywords (not already present in the title) which will be used in indexing.
Body of the Text
Organize the body of the text into: Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. In some cases it may be useful to break related experiments up into individual Methods and Results sections.
Authors are encouraged to make their Introduction and Discussion succinct (around 750 words for the introduction, around 1750 words for the discussion). Unless there is a clear need for longer sections, the Editors will enforce these limits.
Use the metric system of units and SI (Système Internationale) format – e.g., s instead of sec.
Define acronyms at first mention in abstract and text.
Methods and Materials
Although JARO has word limits on the Abstract, Introduction and Discussion, JARO does not have a page limit or word limits on the Methods and Materials or Results sections. Therefore, the methods and materials should be complete. References to prior methods papers may be made, but only if the original method has been exactly followed, and is completely and clearly described in the prior material. Otherwise, JARO requires that the methods be rewritten (to avoid plagiarism) and be completely described. The purpose of complete methods is to aid in reproducibility and to allow readers to fully understand how the study was done. The following are the guidelines for JARO:
- Methods include all procedures and instructions, manipulations of subject material, selection of subjects, methods used to compute stimuli, versions of programs used, specific hardware, etc. Materials include samples, animal sources and lineage, special storage of key reagents, identification of antibodies by lot, complete primer sequences, etc. The goal of the methods section is to allow studies to be replicated in a lab that is similarly equipped.
- For work that relies on antibodies, the methods section should include information about how antibodies were validated either by citing prior work (for example antibodies listed in the JCN database (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1096-9861/homepage/other_resources.htm) or (preferably) in the Antibody Registry (http://antibodyregistry.org). Alternatively, authors may provide a full blot image (not cropped) for each antibody to demonstrate protein specificity, and should include an evaluation of staining in a knock-out animal if possible.
- In animal studies, the methods section should also include relevant information as outlined in the ARRIVE Guideline checklist for Methods (http://www.nc3rs.org.uk/arrive-guidelines). A filled-out copy of the checklist may be included as a supplemental file (not to be published) to aid in the review process.
- The description of data analysis in the methods section should include all processing steps taken to analyze the data (including, but not limited to: additional software filtering, how samples and/or subjects and technical replicates were pooled to determine sample sizes, whether aspects of the experiments were randomized or not, whether the experimenters (and subjects, if relevant) were blinded to subject treatment, and if blinding was used, at what point in the analysis such blinding was unmasked).
- For studies using analysis of images, the analysis section should also include a description of all steps taken while acquiring images, image processing steps prior to analysis, and any additional steps taken in the preparation of images for figures.
- Custom software should be publicly available (for example, on GitHub or a similar repository) or a statement regarding the availability of the software from the authors should be made. Key elements of computational models should be deposited in a database such as ModelDB (https://senselab.med.yale.edu/modeldb/). We also encourage authors to share data in a way that suits the data. Such sharing may include placing the data on a public repository, on a lab web site, or offering to provide the primary data upon request. If work in the manuscript relies on computer simulation code, instructions for providing access to the code for review by both reviewers and readers should be provided.
Present only original, unpublished results. If it is necessary to show previously published material by one of the authors or anyone else, do so only with an explicit citation and supply evidence of approval from the copyright holder.
The discussion section should be 1750 words or less. Avoid lengthy reviews.
Make appropriate acknowledgements (to collaborators, technical support, and sources of financial support) in a separate section after the Discussion.
Include only essential references, but cite primary sources in preference to reviews. All references must be cited in the text. Include only published and in-press manuscripts in the reference list. Cite abstracts only when the material is otherwise unpublished. Submitted manuscripts, unpublished results, and personal communications may be cited in the text only as (EF Jones, submitted), etc. Do not cite previous abstract publications of the work described in the submitted manuscript.
If you are using Endnote, right-click and save this link to download JARO’s Endnote style: JARO.ens
Cite references in the text by name and year in parentheses. Some examples:
• Negotiation research spans many disciplines (Thompson 1990). • This result was later contradicted by Becker and Seligman (1996). • This effect has been widely studied (Abbott 1991; Barakat et al. 1995; Kelso and Smith 1998; Medvec et al. 1993).
The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should only be mentioned in the text. Do not use footnotes or endnotes as a substitute for a reference list. Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last names of the first author of each work.
Examples of references:
Gamelin FX, Baquet G, Berthoin S, Thevenet D, Nourry C, Nottin S, Bosquet L (2009) Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol 105:731-738. doi: 10.1007/s00421-008-0955-8
Ideally, the names of all authors should be provided, but the usage of “et al” in long author lists will also be accepted:
Smith J, Jones M Jr, Houghton L et al (1999) Future of health insurance. N Engl J Med 965:325–329
Article by DOI:
Slifka MK, Whitton JL (2000) Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J Mol Med. doi:10.1007/s001090000086
South J, Blass B (2001) The future of modern genomics. Blackwell, London
Brown B, Aaron M (2001) The politics of nature. In: Smith J (ed) The rise of modern genomics, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 230-257
Online document Cartwright J (2007) Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. http://physicsweb.org/articles/news/11/6/16/1. Accessed 26 June 2007
Trent JW (1975) Experimental acute renal failure. Dissertation, University of California
Always use the standard abbreviation of a journal’s name according to the ISSN List of Title Word Abbreviations.
Simplify equations as much as possible and set in the manuscript exactly as they should appear in the paper. The use of LaTeXIt or MathType to insert the equations as images is acceptable.
Lengthy direct quotations (100 words or more), illustrations, or tables that have appeared in previously published material must be accompanied by written permission for their use from the copyright holder (normally the publisher).
Do not use footnotes. Incorporate explanatory material into the text.
Keep tables to a minimum. Tables are best used for statistical summaries, not raw data. All tables must be mentioned in the text. Number tables consecutively with Arabic numerals and provide a brief title or legend. Place each table on a separate page before the figure legends. The table caption should consist of a single sentence. Addiitional explanatory material, including the definitions of abbreviations used in the table, should be incorporated in footnotes to the table. The table should be arranged so that similar items are in the same column with identifying headers at the top of the columns. Consult recent issues of the journal for examples of tables.
- JARO recommends that authors obtain the advice of a statistician prior to starting a study, to aid in the study design. Any statistical analysis must be checked for accuracy by the authors; if statistical software is used, the source (including version number) of the tools must be listed in Materials and Methods; this information should be provided in the final paragraph. Authors are strongly encouraged to seek the assistance of a statistician at their institution or elsewhere; if they seek such advice, the resource should be identified in the letter of submission, and in the acknowledgements.
- Statistics should be fully reported in the manuscript/article. This includes stating the statistical test(s) used, the exact value of N (sample size), and the definitions of the distribution center (mean, median) and measures of variability (SD, SEM, and confidence intervals) reported in the text and shown in figures. Note that many tests have multiple variants, so saying “t-test” is insufficient. For example, for t-tests, please specify paired or unpaired Student’s, Welch’s, and single versus two-sided (which will critically depend on the hypothesis being tested). If an unusual test is used, please justify it.
- All legends should include specific “N” for each treatment group and a description (or brief description) of statistics used for each experiment. The definition of a sample should be made clear (N cells, M subjects). If data are pooled from multiple observations on individual subjects, the operations involved in computing the pooled value must be stated.
- All statements that indicate the presence of “significant effects” should be supported by an appropriate statistical test.
- State the type of test that was used, including the degrees of freedom, the resulting test value, and the exact P-value (to 2 significant figures) that the result occurred at chance under the null hypothesis.
Format: The format of the description of the statistical results should indicate the degrees of freedom, the statistic value, and the P value, as in these examples:
F(3,21) = 5.62, P = 0.0054 t(7) = 4.582, P = 0.0025 r2(9) = 0.77, P = 0.0004
To avoid ambiguities, all statistical variables should be italicized (F, t, r, P).
- The type of post-hoc tests used when following any ANOVA with multiple comparisons should be identified.
Reporting P values with inequalities should be limited to data is grouped in tables or figures, or for post-hoc tests (multiple comparisons) if no exact value is reported by the software.
Manuscripts that report results based on the analysis of large data sets, including (but not limited to) genomic sequencing studies and fMRI imaging studies are also required to specify in detail how the statistical analyses were done.
All figures must be mentioned in the text.
Color is free to authors and encouraged. For those concerned about legibility in black and white printouts, combine color with distinguishing symbol shapes for maximum impact.
Size: Submit figures at the size that they will appear in the journal: the width of one column (8.3 cm), 1.5 columns (12.5 cm) or two columns (17.2 cm), and height < 23.5 cm.
Lettering within figures should have a size of about 9 points at the figure’s final size. Use the same font throughout; recommended fonts are Helvetica, Arial, Calibri or Times. Use only a small range of font sizes; very large fonts, commonly used in powerpoint presentations, are not useful in papers. Print out your figures to make sure that the smallest fonts, symbols and line thicknesses that you use will be legible in the print version.
Photographs must contain a scale bar so that dimensions can be identified if the figure’s size is changed. Obtain images at a resolution of at least 600 dpi (re-saving low resolution images at high resolution does not work).
Please make sure that your figures meet the following guidelines (not all of these may apply to your manuscript, but please check each before submission):
File Format: Submit TIF (for figures with images) or EPS (for all figures with line drawings) files with a minimum of 300 dpi; 600 dpi for image files is preferable. Please do not submit figures embedded in PDF or PowerPoint (.ppt, .pptx) or Word (.doc/.docx) files.
File Contents: All panels of a given figure should be in a single file.
Top and right axes: Do not include right and top axes unless they are for data that is plotted on a different scale than the opposing axis. Do not “box” the figure panels with lines or shading.
Frames: Remove ALL frames from around figure panels.
Horizontal and Vertical Gridlines: Horizontal and vertical gridlines should be removed from all graphs/histograms, unless they are there to indicate specific values, or if the graph is a 3-D plot, for which such gridlines provide perspective.
Shading: Do not use shaded backgrounds on data plots, except to indicate regions of statistical significance.
Legends: Legends associated with images and plots that indicate the relationship between symbols, line styles, colors, etc. are acceptable. Whenever possible, the legend should place so that it fits within the space of the plot. In some cases, the legend information may be better expressed in the figure caption text.
Figure Captions: Figure caption text should be included at the end of the body of the manuscript, not as a separate document. Captions should allow the reader to understand the figure without reference to the text. Each caption should begin with a single sentence giving the message of the figure. All symbols, arrows, scale bars, and conventions used in figures should be explained in the captions or on the figure itself.
Examples of acceptable and unacceptable figures can be found here.
Illustrations should be of professional quality and should be submitted as compressed TIFF or EPS files.
- Vector (line) Graphics: Vector graphics exported from a drawing program should be stored in EPS format. Rules should be 0.25 pt or more and gray screen darkness should be between 15% and 60%; screens intended to look different from each other should differ by 15% or more.
Half-tone Illustrations and scans:
- Save as compressed TIFFs at 600 ppi/dpi or better and marginal white space cropped. Color illustrations should have 24-bit or better color depth.
Graphics from videos for the printed article.
Prepare separate files for video frames that are to be printed in the journal. Use the rules for half-tone illustrations.
Video illustrations for online-only material (Supplemental videos): Suitable formats are: Mpeg (.mpg; preferred), .rm, .avi, .mov
If you transfer copyright to the Association for Research in Otolaryngology (ARO), then your article will be available to all ARO members and institutional subscribers to JARO for the first year, but not to the public at large until a year has passed. As soon as your article is published on-line (in “Online First”), Springer will automatically upload your article to PubMed Central with a one -year embargo. This procedure will satisfy requirements for research funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health.
Upon acceptance of your article you will receive a link to the special Author Query Application at Springer’s web page where you can sign the Copyright Transfer Statement online and indicate whether you wish to order Open Choice or offprints. Once the Author Query Application has been completed, your article will be processed and you will receive the proofs.
Copyright Transfer vs. “Open Choice”
Authors will be asked to transfer copyright of the article to the Association for Research in Otolaryngology (except in Open Choice articles). This will ensure the widest possible protection and dissemination of information under copyright laws. If you transfer copyright to the Association for Research in Otolaryngology (ARO), then your article will be available to all ARO members and institutional subscribers to JARO for the first year, but not to the public at large until a year has passed. As soon as your article is published in an online issue, Springer will automatically upload your article to PubMed Central with a one year embargo. This procedure will satisfy requirements for research funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health.
In addition to copyright transfer, Springer provides an alternative publishing option which you may choose in the pre-publishing period: Springer Open Choice. If you do not wish to transfer copyright and/or wish to make your paper freely available before one year after the publication date, you can do so by choosing Springer Open Choice for $3,000 at the time your article is accepted for publication. In that case the article will also be available immediately in PubMed Central, as well as on SpringerLink.com. (Springer Open Choice cannot be ordered for already-published articles.) Open Choice articles do not require transfer of copyright as the copyright remains with the author. In opting for open access, authors agree to the Springer Open Choice License.
The purpose of the proof is to check for typesetting or conversion errors and the completeness and accuracy of the text, tables and figures. Substantial changes in content such as new results, corrected values, title and authorship, are not allowed without the approval of the Editor. After online publication, further changes can only be made in the form of an Erratum, which will be hyperlinked to the article.
The article will be published online after receipt of the corrected proofs. This is the official first publication citable with the DOI. After release of the printed version, the paper can also be cited by issue and page numbers.
Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium (NPRC)
JARO is a member of NPRC, an alliance of neuroscience journals that have agreed to share manuscript reviews at the author’s request. The Consortium’s goals are to support efficient and thorough peer review of original research in neuroscience, to speed the publication of research reports, and to reduce the burden on peer reviewers.
Reviews are only shared with other journals at the corresponding author’s request. They are forwarded directly from one editorial office to another. Normally, the reviewers’ names are forwarded along with the review, because anonymous reviews are generally not useful to editors and will do little to speed the review of manuscripts or reduce the burden on peer reviewers. Nevertheless, reviewers will have the option to not allow their names to be forwarded. As before, reviewers’ identities are never revealed to authors. A related change is that JARO no longer accepts confidential comments to the editors (except to discuss human or animal subject welfare, potential conflicts of interest or misconduct). This way, both authors and editors of journals receiving forwarded reviews will have access to the full review upon which each manuscript decision is based.
Policy and Guidelines on the Sharing of Research Materials and Genetic Database Information
In general, by submitting a manuscript to the Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology (JARO), the Authors are agreeing to abide by the guidelines stated here concerning sharing of research materials.
In rare instances, considerations of time, money, or personnel, may make sharing of materials impossible. In such a case, the authors must explain the circumstances in a cover letter submitted with the manuscript, indicating that they are prepared to make every effort to assist others in creating their own materials. The Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology may then determine on a case-by-case basis whether or not to accept the manuscript for review. If it is demonstrated to the editor-in-chief that an author has failed to abide by these guidelines, the Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology will refuse to publish any manuscript involving that author until the matter is corrected.
Unique materials used in studies being reported in JARO must be made available to qualified scientists for bona fide research purposes.
Before publication, authors must deposit any nucleotide or protein sequence data reported in the manuscript in GenBank or other members of the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (EMBL or DDBJ) and SWISS-PROT, and the associated accession numbers must be provided. Similarly, protein or other molecular structure data must be reported in the NCBI Structure database and accession numbers provided.
After publication, authors should be prepared to promptly make available to qualified scientists for bona fide research purposes all materials that were used in the reported research and that were generated in the authors’ laboratories and that are not commercially available. This includes propagatable research materials (such as monoclonal antibodies, transgenic animals, and DNA probes and constructs) and, where possible, non-propagatable materials (for example, serum antibodies). Reasonable costs associated with the production and transfer of these materials should be provided by the recipient if the authors so request.
Such materials should be provided to qualified scientists for bona fide research purposes without restrictions. For example, no restriction may be placed on the kind of research to be done with them. Likewise, the person providing the materials should not require future authorship as a condition for this provision. These guidelines apply to individuals in both the academic and private sectors, except that there is no requirement to provide materials to an individual intending to use them for commercialization.
In some cases, the replication and extension of published work may require materials that are not readily available. In such instances, the authors must make every effort to provide those materials to other qualified scientists. Authors who use materials that they obtain from another source should provide information about that source in the methods.
Authors should try to arrange to provide these materials for a significant period of time after publication.
Authors may, if possible, arrange to distribute materials through entities such as the American Type Culture Collection (Rockville, MD), data banks (e.g., for DNA sequences), or the Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME).
Please send questions about formatting or content to the Editorial Office at JARO.firstname.lastname@example.org.